Our eyes and vision change with age. Your eye doctor can monitor these changes — some of which are a natural part of the aging process — and identify any eye conditions or diseases early enough to lessen their severity and prevent vision loss. Read on to learn more about the different types of eye changes one may encounter with age.
Age-Related Eye Conditions and Diseases
If your vision is starting to get blurry or you are experiencing more glare from oncoming headlights when driving at night you may be developing cataracts. There are a few types of cataracts, but the one usually caused by aging is known as a "nuclear cataract". At first, it may lead to increased nearsightedness or even a temporary improvement in your reading vision. But with time, the lens gradually turns more densely yellow and clouds your vision. As the cataract slowly progresses, the lens may even turn brown. Advanced yellowing or browning of the lens can lead to difficulty distinguishing between shades of color, and left untreated, it can eventually lead to significant vision loss. Luckily, cataract surgery, where the cloudy lens is replaced with a clear lens, is an extremely safe and effective treatment option.
Blepharoptosis or ptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid that may affect one or both eyes. The eyelid may droop only slightly or may droop enough to cover the pupil and block vision. This condition is usually caused by aging, eye surgery, or disease affecting the muscle or the nerves that serve the eye. Sudden onset of a drooping upper eyelid should be evaluated urgently, especially when accompanied by double vision or unequal pupil sizes. This could be a sign of an undiagnosed but potentially serious medical condition.
This occurs when the gel-like vitreous fluid inside the eye begins to liquefy and pull away from the retina, causing "spots and floaters" and, sometimes, flashes of light. This occurrence is often harmless, but floaters and flashes of light can also signal the beginning of a detached retina — a serious problem that can cause blindness, and requires immediate treatment. If you experience sudden or worsening flashes and increased floaters, see Drs. Richardson and Kimball immediately to determine the cause.
Other Age-Related Changes
In addition to the above eye conditions and diseases, the structure of our eyes and vision change as we get older.
Why do people in their 40s and 50s have more difficulty focusing on near objects like books and phone screens? The lens inside the eye begins to lose its ability to change shape and bring near objects into focus, a process called presbyopia. Over time, presbyopia will become more pronounced and you will eventually need reading glasses to see clearly. You may need multiple prescriptions - one prescription to enable you to see up close, one for intermediate distance, and one for distance vision. In that case, people often wear lenses called multifocals or PALs, and they can be combined with contact lenses as well.
Reduced pupil size
As we age, our reaction to light and the muscles that control our pupil size lose some strength. This causes the pupil to become smaller and less responsive to changes in ambient lighting. The result? It becomes harder to clearly see objects, such as a menu, in a low-light setting like a restaurant.
Our tear glands produce fewer tears and the tears they produce have less moisturizing oils. Your eye doctor can determine whether your dry eye is age-related or due to another condition, and will recommend the right over-the-counter or prescription eye drops, or other effective and lasting treatments, to alleviate the dryness and restore comfort. Timely treatment of dry eyes can prevent more significant ocular surface disease in years to come.
Loss of peripheral vision
Aging causes a 1-3 degree loss of peripheral vision per decade of life. In fact, one may reach a peripheral visual field loss of 20-30 degrees by the time they reach their 70s and 80s. While peripheral vision loss is a normal part of aging, it can also indicate the presence of a serious eye disease, like glaucoma. The best way to ascertain the cause is by getting an eye exam.
Decreased color vision
The cells in the retina responsible for normal color vision tend to decline as we age, causing colors to become less bright and the contrast between different colors to be less noticeable. Though a normal part of aging, faded colors can at times signal a more serious ocular problem.
Beyond the normal changes that come with age, the risk of developing a serious eye disease, such as age related macular degeneration and glaucoma, increases. Routine eye exams are essential to keeping your eyes healthy. Your eye doctor can determine whether your symptoms are caused by an eye problem or are a normal byproduct of aging.
If you or a loved one suffers from impaired vision, we can help. To find out more and to schedule your annual eye doctor's appointment, contact Progressive Eye Care in Farmington and Southbury, CT today.